Molecular interference with protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors, blockers of receptors, kinases, neurotrophins, and transcription factors in species ranging from invertebrates to mammals showed that the biosynthetic-dependent phase of memory consolidation is relatively brief and is completed within the first day or two after training (Taubenfeld et al., 2001a,b; Bailey et al., 2004; Bekinschtein et al., 2007; Ou et al., 2010).
Several reviews provide comprehensive summaries of what is known about the gradients of new protein and RNA synthesis requirements, as well as the nature of genes and proteins that are critically recruited during memory consolidation (Kandel, 2001; Davis and Laroche, 2006; Reissner et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006; Bramham et al., 2010).
When consolidation is disrupted by traumatic injury to a brain structure known as the hippocampus, memories in the process of being consolidated are lost. candidate in Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation constitutes ...Readers of Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation are treated to a deep and probing journey into this important topic.The authors uncover surprising similarities between the formation of individual memories and the formation of collective memories that form in families, nations, and other groups.”—Elizabeth F.Proteins whose expression is induced by training and are required for long-term memory consolidation include several immediate early genes, such as the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), c-Fos, and Zif268, as well as effector genes such as activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and tissue-plasminogen activator (TPA), to mention just a few (Melchor and Strickland, 2005; Alberini, 2009). On the other hand, animal model and clinical studies based on retrograde and anterograde amnesia caused by brain trauma, stroke, or brain region inactivation or ablation have shown that, in some types of memories such as the so-called explicit or declarative memories, consolidation lingers for a prolonged period. The consolidation of new but not reactivated memory requires hippocampal C/EBPβ.