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    "It's like an itch that you have to scratch," Luke Bovard, a 23-year-old graduate student at Canada's University of Waterloo, explained matter-of-factly, leaning back on a Brooklyn park bench during a recent visit to New York City. Now, you’ll be getting loads more stuff (literally). The satrapies formed a system which made it possible to rule over the whole Achaemenid territory, to raise and forward taxes, to recruit military forces, and to control local bureaucracies. 139), in archives (e.g., Hallock; Stolper, 1990; Koch), and on coins (e.g., Alram, pp. From the viewpoint of literary history it is an insertion from another genre, the epic, and is to be evaluated accordingly (Armayor). 255-57), this is no surprise, since that research throws ever more sharply into relief the way in which the fashioning of material is a decisive component in Herodotus’s historical work (Bichler and Rollinger, pp. The catalogue of Herodotus is as incompatible with the lists of the Achaemenid inscriptions as with those of the Alexander historians or with the numerous attestations of the Greek and Latin authors. These vary in reliability, but, taken together, they do allow reconstructing the empire’s divisions at Babylon and Triparadisus (Jacobs, 1994, pp. As a result, a very considerable degree of continuity is detectable from the time of Darius III (r. He either retained in their posts the officials he came upon or replaced them with people who enjoyed his trust. 87), and even quite recently Pierre Lecoq (1990) has tried to provide this interpretation with a philological foundation. 299-305) with, at most, 23 items and the list in XPh with 32 are at odds with the observation that the empire’s territory remained substantially unchanged. The conclusion was drawn that the lists were more or less incomplete, especially in view of the omission of names that were regarded as indispensible, such as Cilicia, Hellespontine Phrygia, and Syria (Krumbholz, p. If some names were nevertheless added in later inscriptions, it was to foster the illusion that, now as before, the rulers were augmenting their territorial property, although the process of extending the frontiers had been stagnating since the last decade of the 6th century BCE.

    What is the name of the process for consolidating memories

    Molecular interference with protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors, blockers of receptors, kinases, neurotrophins, and transcription factors in species ranging from invertebrates to mammals showed that the biosynthetic-dependent phase of memory consolidation is relatively brief and is completed within the first day or two after training (Taubenfeld et al., 2001a,b; Bailey et al., 2004; Bekinschtein et al., 2007; Ou et al., 2010).

    Several reviews provide comprehensive summaries of what is known about the gradients of new protein and RNA synthesis requirements, as well as the nature of genes and proteins that are critically recruited during memory consolidation (Kandel, 2001; Davis and Laroche, 2006; Reissner et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006; Bramham et al., 2010).

    When consolidation is disrupted by traumatic injury to a brain structure known as the hippocampus, memories in the process of being consolidated are lost. candidate in Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation constitutes ...Readers of Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation are treated to a deep and probing journey into this important topic.The authors uncover surprising similarities between the formation of individual memories and the formation of collective memories that form in families, nations, and other groups.”—Elizabeth F.Proteins whose expression is induced by training and are required for long-term memory consolidation include several immediate early genes, such as the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), c-Fos, and Zif268, as well as effector genes such as activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and tissue-plasminogen activator (TPA), to mention just a few (Melchor and Strickland, 2005; Alberini, 2009). On the other hand, animal model and clinical studies based on retrograde and anterograde amnesia caused by brain trauma, stroke, or brain region inactivation or ablation have shown that, in some types of memories such as the so-called explicit or declarative memories, consolidation lingers for a prolonged period. The consolidation of new but not reactivated memory requires hippocampal C/EBPβ.

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